In the absence of armor, nuclear weapons containing kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium or uranium 238 can be detected by neutron or gamma counters at a distance of tens of meters. Scientists can detect these isotopes xenon 131, xenon 135 and krypton 85 when they leak into the environment. This is a reliable way to find or not find signs of plutonium production. To detect a nuclear weapon, radiation detectors are commonly used to measure radiation emissions.
The problem is that these detectors are rarely able to measure far enough, close enough and unshielded in the way. This is especially true in urban environments. For example, if a nuclear weapon is in a vehicle driving on a street, scanning vehicles with detectors placed next to roads or in overpasses only provides a couple of seconds of measurement per vehicle and the load surrounding the weapon, as well as the vehicle itself, provides some protection. Robert Oppenheimer suggested to Congress a reliable means of detecting nuclear weapons inside a suitcase destined to be detonated in an American city.
He and other nuclear detectives are devising new sensors, fabricating artificial consequences to perfect analytical techniques, and studying how the glass formed in the furnace of an atomic explosion would vary depending on the nature of the bomb and the city where it detonated. In nuclear engineering at Oregon State University, where he studied the dosimetry of nuclear and radiological exposure events and processes. These monitors were originally designed to detect radionuclides that were released after the detonation of a nuclear weapon. Despite these measures, there is a limit to the sensitivity of underground and submarine systems, so very small nuclear explosions at a great distance from receiving sites may go undetected or misidentified as a small earthquake. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a legally binding global ban on the testing of nuclear explosives. It was established in 1996 with the aim of preventing any nation from conducting nuclear tests that could lead to an increase in global tensions. In conclusion, detecting nuclear weapons is possible but it requires sophisticated technology and careful analysis.
The CTBT has been successful in preventing nations from testing nuclear weapons, but it is still important for scientists to continue researching ways to detect them in order to ensure global security.